No Knead Bread; Milk Bank; Cute Food; Whale Hunt
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Culinary schools teach aspiring chefs everything they need to know in the kitchen, from knife skills to how to make the perfect consomme. Adam Dulye is an instructor at Culinary School of the Rockies where culinary students take a turn on the farm learning about animal slaughter.
Breast milk is the first food. For women who have trouble producing it and choose not to use formula, enter the milk bank. Pauline Sakamoto tells us about the Mother's Milk Bank of California which accepts excess breast milk and distributes it to those in need. Dr. Buddhima Lokuge of Doctors Without Borders has some solutions for feeding hungry children. Fish feed can be found in the least likely of places, from cat food to pig feed. Paul Greenberg tells us why he thinks this is a problem.
There is nothing better than home baked bread. Mark Bittman shares a foolproof recipe for homemade, no-knead bread. Christopher Salyers shares the adorable bento boxes or charaben. Plus Jonathan Harris takes us on a whale hunt. And Laura Avery tells us what fresh at the Santa Monica Farmers Market.
Market Report ()
Troy Regier brings in Satsuma mandarins. These tangerines are easy to peel and just coming into season.
Culinary School Slaughter ()
Chef-instructor Adam Dulye teaches students how to harvest lamb at the Culinary School of the Rockies in Denver, Colorado. During the two-week "Farm to Table" externship, students get to slaughter, skin and prepare a lamb. For more information about this innovative culinary school, check out its curriculum.
Breast Milk Bank ()
Pauline Sakamoto, executive director of Mother's Milk Bank of California, collects and distributes excess breast milk for infants born with health problems and others in need. This organization is part of The Human Milk Banking Association of North America, which has locations throughout the United States and Canada. If you'd like to donate surplus breast milk, please call 1-866-522-MILK (522-6455).
The Whale Hunt ()
Visual artist Jonathan Harris goes on an incredible quest to document an Alaskan tribal whale hunt. He discusses how a group of men slay a 40 ton whale with a handheld harpoon and how whale meat sustains the Inupiat Eskimos for a year. Harris details his Alaskan experience on his website, The Whale Hunt. He is a polymath who combines elements of computer science, anthropology, visual arts and storytelling. To learn more about his other fascinating work, you can visit his Number 27 web site.
Fish as Feed ()
Paul Greenberg is a regular contributor to The New York Times on seafood issues and the author of a forthcoming book on the future of fish. His recent New York Times Op-Ed piecedescribes where wild fish are ending up: in feed for livestock, pets and farmed fish.
Find Paul in this month's GQ, where he wrote about trying to grow a tomato at Ground Zero.
Feeding Hungry Children ()
Dr. Buddhima Lokuge, of Doctors Without Borders, discusses several strategies that are being implemented to feed starving children around the world, including no-cook food aids. One of them, Plumpy'nut, is a peanut-based paste that is used in famine relief and to combat malnutrition in the developing world.
Dr. Lokuge is the manager of Medecins Sans Frontierers' Access to Essential Medicines Campaign.
No Knead Bread ()
Best-selling cookbook author Mark Bittman is the creator and author of the popular New York Times weekly column, "The Minimalist," and one of the country's best-known and widely admired food writers. His flagship book, How to Cook Everything, is currently in its fourteenth printing and has, in its various formats, sold over a million copies.
Mark is also a regular guest on the “Today” show and NPR's “All Things Considered” and has also appeared on countless national and local radio and television shows. He has been profiled in this country's leading newspapers, including the Boston Globe, Washington Post, and Los Angeles Times.
No Knead Bread – Original Recipe
Yield: One 1 1/2-pound loaf
Time: About 1 1/2 hours plus 14 to 20 hours’ rising
3 cups all-purpose or bread flour, more for dusting
1/4 teaspoon instant yeast
1 1/4 teaspoons salt
Cornmeal or wheat bran as needed.
In a large bowl combine flour, yeast and salt. Add 1 5/8 cups water, and stir until blended; dough will be shaggy and sticky. Cover bowl with plastic wrap. Let dough rest at least 12 hours, preferably about 18, at warm room temperature, about 70 degrees.
Dough is ready when its surface is dotted with bubbles. Lightly flour a work surface and place dough on it; sprinkle it with a little more flour and fold it over on itself once or twice. Cover loosely with plastic wrap and let rest about 15 minutes.
Using just enough flour to keep dough from sticking to work surface or to your fingers, gently and quickly shape dough into a ball. Generously coat a cotton towel (not terry cloth) with flour, wheat bran or cornmeal; put dough seam side down on towel and dust with more flour, bran or cornmeal. Cover with another cotton towel and let rise for about 2 hours. When it is ready, dough will be more than double in size and will not readily spring back when poked with a finger.
At least a half-hour before dough is ready, heat oven to 450 degrees. Put a 6- to 8-quart heavy covered pot (cast iron, enamel, Pyrex or ceramic) in oven as it heats. When dough is ready, carefully remove pot from oven. Slide your hand under towel and turn dough over into pot, seam side up; it may look like a mess, but that is O.K. Shake pan once or twice if dough is unevenly distributed; it will straighten out as it bakes. Cover with lid and bake 30 minutes, then remove lid and bake another 15 to 30 minutes, until loaf is beautifully browned. Cool on a rack.
No Knead Bread – Optional Recipes
WEIGHT VS. VOLUME - The original recipe contained volume measures, but for those who prefer to use weight, here are the measurements: 430 grams of flour, 345 grams of water, 1 gram of yeast and 8 grams of salt. With experience, many people will stop measuring altogether and add just enough water to make the dough almost too wet to handle.
SALT - Many people, me included, felt Mr. Lahey’s bread was not salty enough. Yes, you can use more salt and it won’t significantly affect the rising time. I’ve settled at just under a tablespoon.
YEAST - Instant yeast, called for in the recipe, is also called rapid-rise yeast. But you can use whatever yeast you like. Active dry yeast can be used without proofing (soaking it to make sure it’s active).
TIMING - About 18 hours is the preferred initial rising time. Some readers have cut this to as little as eight hours and reported little difference. I have not had much luck with shorter times, but I have gone nearly 24 hours without a problem. Room temperature will affect the rising time, and so will the temperature of the water you add (I start with tepid). Like many other people, I’m eager to see what effect warmer weather will have. But to those who have moved the rising dough around the room trying to find the 70-degree sweet spot: please stop. Any normal room temperature is fine. Just wait until you see bubbles and well-developed gluten — the long strands that cling to the sides of the bowl when you tilt it — before proceeding.
THE SECOND RISE - Mr. Lahey originally suggested one to two hours, but two to three is more like it, in my experience. (Ambient temperatures in the summer will probably knock this time down some.) Some readers almost entirely skipped this rise, shaping the dough after the first rise and letting it rest while the pot and oven preheat; this is worth trying, of course.
OTHER FLOURS - Up to 30 percent whole-grain flour works consistently and well, and 50 percent whole-wheat is also excellent. At least one reader used 100 percent whole-wheat and reported “great crust but somewhat inferior crumb,” which sounds promising. I’ve kept rye, which is delicious but notoriously impossible to get to rise, to about 20 percent. There is room to experiment.
FLAVORINGS -The best time to add caraway seeds, chopped olives, onions, cheese, walnuts, raisins or whatever other traditional bread flavorings you like is after you’ve mixed the dough. But it’s not the only time; you can fold in ingredients before the second rising.
OTHER SHAPES - Baguettes in fish steamers, rolls in muffin tins or classic loaves in loaf pans: if you can imagine it, and stay roughly within the pattern, it will work.
COVERING BETWEEN RISES - A Silpat mat under the dough is a clever idea (not mine). Plastic wrap can be used as a top layer in place of a second towel.
THE POT - The size matters, but not much. I have settled on a smaller pot than Mr. Lahey has, about three or four quarts. This produces a higher loaf, which many people prefer — again, me included. I’m using cast iron. Readers have reported success with just about every available material. Note that the lid handles on Le Creuset pots can only withstand temperatures up to 400 degrees. So avoid using them, or remove the handle first.
BAKING - You can increase the initial temperature to 500 degrees for more rapid browning, but be careful; I scorched a loaf containing whole-wheat flour by doing this. Yes, you can reduce the length of time the pot is covered to 20 minutes from 30, and then increase the time the loaf bakes uncovered. Most people have had a good experience baking for an additional 30 minutes once the pot is uncovered.
As these answers demonstrate, almost everything about Mr. Lahey’s bread is flexible, within limits. As we experiment, we will have failures. (Like the time I stopped adding flour because the phone rang, and didn’t realize it until 18 hours later. Even this, however, was reparable). This method is going to have people experimenting, and largely succeeding, until something better comes along. It may be quite a while.
Face Food ()
Japanese pop culture enthusiast Christopher Salyers documents charaben, the cute and creative characters made from food for Japanese children's bento lunch boxes, in his book,Face Food: The Visual Creativity of Japanese Bento Boxes. He talks about the ingredients, tools, the appeal of making charaben and the charaben-child connection. To see more pictures of Japanese bento box art, you can visit Salyers' blog.
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