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FROM THIS EPISODE

Since the fall of Moammar Gadhafi, Libya has descended into chaos — with two rival governments vying for control. Now a faction of the Islamic State has moved into the vacuum of power. Would another international intervention make things better or worse?

Also, a graveyard of animals the size of gorillas have been uncovered in a cave off the shore of Madagascar. It's a rare look at ancient giants — extinct since the arrival of human beings.

Photo: Egyptian Christians held captive by the Islamic State (IS) kneel in front of armed men along a beach near Tripoli. They were forced onto their knees, then beheaded. February 15, 2015.(Social media via Reuters TV)

Producers:
Benjamin Gottlieb
Gideon Brower
Sonya Geis

Obama Calls for International Fight against Violent Extremism 6 MIN, 30 SEC

On the final day of his summit on violent extremism, President Obama called on leaders from 60 nations to expand human rights, religious tolerance and peaceful dialogue. "When people are oppressed and human rights are denied, particularly along sectarian lines or ethnic lines, when dissent is silenced, it feeds violent extremism. It creates an environment that is ripe for terrorists to exploit."

Michael Crowley is senior foreign affairs correspondent for Politico.

Guests:
Michael Crowley, Politico (@MichaelCrowley)

Fertile Ground for ISIS in Libya 34 MIN, 17 SEC

Last weekend, a faction of the Islamic State beheaded a dozen Christians in Libya, and the eyes of the world turned back to a nation in chaos. Egypt responded with airstrikes — designed to punish ISIS and help one of two rival governments trying to take power in Libya. The UN is trying to get the two groups together. The ISIS group may or not provide a common enemy. In 2011, Europe helped end Moammar Gadhafi's brutal dictatorship in Libya as the US famously "led from behind." With the Islamic State now on Europe's doorstep, will the West intervene again?

Guests:
David D. Kirkpatrick, New York Times (@ddknyt)
Jon Lee Anderson, Staff writer for the New Yorker magazine (@jonleeanderson)
Frederic Wehrey, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (@FWehrey)
Anas El Gomati, Sadeq Institute (@AGomati)

More:
Kirkpatrick on Egyptian airstrike in Libya against ISIS
Anderson's profile of Libyan General Khalifa Haftar
Wehrey on guarded optimism in Libya's future as a unified state
El Gormati on Khalifa Hifter (2014)

Underwater Cave in Madagascar Is Packed with 1,000 Year Old Fossils 8 MIN, 48 SEC

The subcontinent of Madagascar off southeastern Africa is hot spot of biodiversity, where plants and animals evolved differently than any place else in the world. When humans arrived some 2000 years ago mass extinctions followed. Now scientists have discovered a trove of fossils that could reveal a vanished ecology.

In a cave, 130 feet below the floor of the ocean off Madagascar, scientists have found hundreds of bones of extinct animals -- lemurs the size of gorillas and elephant birds. Science writer Brian Switek blogs about fossils at National Geographic. He's also author of My Beloved Brontosaurus: On the Road with Old Bones, New Science and Our Favorite Dinosaurs.

Guests:
Brian Switek, National Geographic (@Laelaps)

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