When Bill Gates said it was time to think about toilets, researchers around the world paid attention and eight universities got grants worth $400,000 apiece. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations says 2.6 billion people lack access to toilets. One and a half million children die every year from diarrheal diseases. In Seattle yesterday, the California Institute of Technology won their "Reinvent the Toilet Challenge" by designing a solar-powered toilet. Professor Michael Hoffmann headed the Caltech team.