I have undergraduate degrees in Communication (Film) from Stanford University and Musicology (Ethnomusicology) from the University of Michigan. My graduate degrees are all from the University of Hawai'i, M.A. in Musicology (Ethnomusicology) and Anthropology, and Ph.D. in Anthropology. My Ph.D. work was on a Japanese popular music genre, enka, which I analyzed as a cultural form that incorporates constructions of emotion, gender, and the nation. The book form of that dissertation has been published as Tears of Longing: Nostalgia and the Nation in Japanese Popular Song (2002) by Harvard University Asia Center/ Harvard University Press.